For individuals with ASD it is highly valuable to incorporate a multi-model approach. This involves using alternatives to text, such as audio or visual stimuli for greater accessibility (4). Individuals with ASD often have advanced visual-spatial skills meaning they have the potential to excel at computer tasks, elucidating the use of technology to promote vocational skills and engagement (18).
Consequently, video modelling is an effective tool that promotes independence and task completion. It incorporates using self modelling or an adult model to describe each step of a task and visualise instructions (11). This should be completed either by prompting each step of the task or modelling the task as a whole. As a result, this decreases the amount of errors and leads to a higher task completion rate (11). This is an effective tool for individuals with ASD as this form of learning through technology leads to increased independence, motivation, competence and confidence (18).
A Task Analysis consists of task purpose, task classification and task demands (20). Task Analysis assist the user in knowing how much time they are required to allocate to the task, what tools they will require, what knowledge they have in relation to the task, what knowledge is required and what strategies are appropriate in completing the task (20).
Planning of a Task Analysis begins with a task assigned by a supervisor or user (21). Afterwards the task should be performed or observed in order to list the sequence of behaviors or action (22). Consider how these actions and behaviors could be better adapted to the user. A Task Analysis should be written in observable terms and ordered first to last performed (23). Contemplate what behavior or outcome will confirm that the user has completed that task (21).
Task Reminders and planning
Including task reminders is a great tool to ensure tasks get completed on time, promoting independence and improving performance (11). People with ASD may have difficulties completing self initiated tasks compared to tasks that require external cues (19). This may be attributed to memory difficulties, particularly when multiple tasks need to be completed.
Individuals with ASD often have difficulty with time based over event based tasks. Consequently, external reminders would be beneficial to meet these deadlines (19). Additional tools such as planners, to do lists and diaries would also be useful to help remember these tasks, complete them independently and on time.
Individuals with ASD are often visual thinkers. As a result, images should accompany text to deliver the same message with additional clarity as the individual is able to visualise (14). Additionally, charts, graphs and symbols help to further convey and visualise the message.
This can be achieved by using a sequence of images to plan out the steps of a task or represent more difficult concepts (14), as it helps to prompt the individual (11). These images need to be carefully considered, so they are easy to understand and not cause more confusion (14).